The expanding universe of disorders of the basal ganglia

Lancet. 2014 Aug 9;384(9942):523-31. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62418-6. Epub 2014 Jun 18.


The basal ganglia were originally thought to be associated purely with motor control. However, dysfunction and pathology of different regions and circuits are now known to give rise to many clinical manifestations beyond the association of basal ganglia dysfunction with movement disorders. Moreover, disorders that were thought to be caused by dysfunction of the basal ganglia only, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, have diverse abnormalities distributed not only in the brain but also in the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems; this knowledge poses new questions and challenges. We discuss advances and the unanswered questions, and ways in which progress might be made.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Basal Ganglia / physiopathology*
  • Basal Ganglia Diseases / genetics
  • Basal Ganglia Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Limbic System / physiology
  • Movement Disorders / genetics
  • Movement Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology
  • Tourette Syndrome / physiopathology