Bone-seeking (osteotropic) drug delivery systems (ODDS) represent an interesting solution for targeting different types of drugs to the bones. In particular, anticancer and antibacterial agents could take advantage of such therapeutic strategy. We have recently developed an innovative approach to this aim: a new osteotropic biomaterial was prepared, based on the conjugation of a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) with the bisphosphonate drug alendronate (PLGA-ALE); its hemo- and cytocompatibility were verified. Starting with this copolymer, an osteotropic nanoparticle system (NP) was produced for the targeted delivery of antineoplastic drugs to osteolytic bone metastases; in particular, doxorubicin was tested as a model drug. The in vitro and in vivo results of the new ODDS are validated in this article. All the experimental data confirmed that the drug retained its activity after loading in the PLGA-ALE NP; they can be thus considered a new promising strategy for active targeting of drugs to bone tissues in different pathological situations.