Phosphoproteome dynamics in onset and maintenance of oncogene-induced senescence

Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014 Aug;13(8):2089-100. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M113.035436. Epub 2014 Jun 24.


Expression of the BRAF(V600E) oncoprotein is known to cause benign lesions, such as melanocytic nevi (moles). Despite the oncogenic function of mutant BRAF, these lesions are arrested by a cell-autonomous mechanism called oncogene-induced senescence. Infrequently, nevi can progress to malignant melanoma, through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. To gain more insight into this vital tumor-suppression mechanism, we performed a mass-spectrometry-based screening of the proteome and phosphoproteome in cycling and senescent cells and in cells with abrogated senescence. Proteome analysis of senescent cells revealed the up-regulation of established senescence biomarkers, including specific cytokines, but also several proteins not previously associated with senescence, including extracellular matrix-interacting. Using both general and targeted phosphopeptide enrichment by Ti(4+)-IMAC and phosphotyrosine antibody enrichment, we identified over 15,000 phosphorylation sites. Among the regulated phosphorylation sites we encountered components of the interleukin, BRAF/MAPK, and CDK-retinoblastoma pathways and several other factors. The extensive proteome and phosphoproteome dataset of BRAF(V600E)-expressing senescent cells provides molecular clues as to how oncogene-induced senescence is initiated, maintained, or evaded, serving as a comprehensive proteomic basis for functional validation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line
  • Cellular Senescence*
  • Databases, Genetic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Oncogenes*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction


  • BRAF protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf