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. 2014 Jun 24;19(6):8644-60.
doi: 10.3390/molecules19068644.

Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Hydrophilic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Seed Oil on Breast Cancer Cell Lines

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Free PMC article

Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Hydrophilic Fraction of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) Seed Oil on Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Susan Costantini et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

In this work, we characterized conjugated linolenic acids (e.g., punicic acid) as the major components of the hydrophilic fraction (80% aqueous methanol extract) from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) and evaluated their anti-inflammatory potential on some human colon (HT29 and HCT116), liver (HepG2 and Huh7), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and prostate (DU145) cancer lines. Our results demonstrated that punicic acid and its congeners induce a significant decrease of cell viability for two breast cell lines with a related increase of the cell cycle G0/G1 phase respect to untreated cells. Moreover, the evaluation of a great panel of cytokines expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells showed that the levels of VEGF and nine pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α) decreased in a dose dependent way with increasing amounts of the hydrophilic extracts of PSO, supporting the evidence of an anti-inflammatory effect. Taken together, the data herein suggest a potential synergistic cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant role of the polar compounds from PSO.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
We show RP-HPLC-DAD separation of the polar extracts (80% methanol) from pomegranate oil. The chromatogram was performed at λ = 280 nm. Moreover we report in the insets I and II the UV-Vis spectra evaluated for thepeaks no. 1 and 2 corresponding at two specific retention times, tR = 56.1 min (no. 1) and tR = 57.4 min (no. 2).
Figure 2
Figure 2
MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of the unfractionated polar extract from pomegranate oil. The signal at m/z 323.2 arose from sodium adducts of C18:3 carboxylate sodium salts.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Cell lines growth curves (CR) after 24 h of treatment with hydrophylic extracts of PSO. In details, the viability percentages are reported as mean and standard deviation of triplicate data.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Cytokine levels (expressed as fluorescence intensity) evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with hydrophilic extracts of PSO performed in triplicate. We indicate with * the comparisons between the levels in the untreated and treated cells that resulted statistically significant (p < 0.05 by T-test).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Interactomic analysis by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of significant molecules. The interactome shows the close functional association between significant cytokines (evidenced with cyan symbols) as well as the paths in which other functionally relevant molecules are also involved (evidenced with white symbols). In particular, some hub node (ESR1, NF-kB, NOS2, RELA subunit, and STAT1) are evidenced by green symbols.

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