Aim: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and within a subset of Stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 30 and <50 ml/min/1.73 m(2)).
Methods: In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients (N = 269; mean eGFR, 39.4 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg and placebo once daily. Efficacy endpoints included changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight and systolic blood pressure (BP); adverse events (AEs) were also recorded.
Results: At week 52, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg reduced HbA1c compared with placebo (-0.19, -0.33 and 0.07%, respectively); placebo-subtracted differences (95% confidence interval) were -0.27% (-0.53, 0.001) and -0.41% (-0.68, -0.14). Canagliflozin also lowered FPG, body weight and BP versus placebo. Overall AE incidence was 85.6, 80.9, and 86.7% with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo, respectively. Osmotic diuresis-related AEs were more common with both canagliflozin doses, and incidences of urinary tract infections and volume depletion-related AEs were higher with canagliflozin 300 mg versus placebo. Decreases in eGFR (-2.1, -4.0 and -1.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg compared with placebo. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided median percent reductions in urine albumin to creatinine ratio versus placebo (-16.4, -28.0 and 19.7%).
Conclusions: Canagliflozin improved glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in patients with T2DM and within a subset of Stage 3 CKD over 52 weeks.
Keywords: diabetic nephropathy; randomized trial; sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.