The impact of interventions by pharmacists in community pharmacies on control of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;78(6):1238-47. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12452.


Aims: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials concerned with the impact of community pharmacist-led interventions on blood pressure control in patients with hypertension.

Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched up to 30 November 2013, with no start date (Web of Science, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Medline Ovid, Biomed Central, Biosis Citation Index, CINAHL, PsycINFO). All studies included were randomized controlled trials involving patients with hypertension, with or without cardiovascular-related co-morbidities, with difference in blood pressure as an outcome. Data collected included the study design, baseline characteristics of study populations, types of interventions and outcomes. The Cochrane tool was used to assess risk of bias.

Results: From 340 articles identified on initial searching, 16 randomized controlled trials (3032 patients) were included. Pharmacist-led interventions were patient education on hypertension, management of prescribing and safety problems associated with medication, and advice on lifestyle. These interventions were associated with significant reductions in systolic [11 studies (2240 patients); -6.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval, -3.8 to -8.4 mmHg); P < 0.00001] and diastolic blood pressure [11 studies (2246 patients); -2.5 mmHg (95% confidence interval, -1.5 to -3.4 mmHg); P < 0.00001].

Conclusions: Community pharmacist-led interventions can significantly reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These interventions could be useful for improving clinical management of hypertension.

Keywords: hypertension; meta-analysis; pharmacists; randomized controlled trial.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Community Pharmacy Services*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Medication Adherence
  • Pharmacists*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic