Comparative study of heavy metals in dried and fluid milk in Peshawar by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

ScientificWorldJournal. 2014:2014:715845. doi: 10.1155/2014/715845. Epub 2014 May 20.


Various essential and toxic heavy metals (Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni) contents in various types of dried (infant formula and powdered) and fluid (fresh and processed) cow milk were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The milk samples were collected from local markets of different parts of Peshawar city, Pakistan. Heavy metal concentrations varied significantly depending upon the type of milk. The heavy metal concentrations in most of the samples were within normal and permissible ranges. It was observed that the samples contained considerable amounts of calcium, while magnesium levels were well above the required levels. The results also revealed that copper levels were slightly lower than the permissible limits. The concentration of zinc in dried milk samples was greater than the values for the liquid milk types. Infant milk formulae had higher iron levels as compared to other milk samples because of the added constituents. Significant differences were observed in the mean values of manganese and cadmium in different types of milk. The toxic metals were within the acceptable limits and did not show significant levels leading to toxicity.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Food Contamination
  • India
  • Metals, Heavy / analysis*
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Milk / standards


  • Metals, Heavy