Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adults With ADHD in Outpatient Psychiatric Care

J Atten Disord. 2017 Apr;21(6):508-521. doi: 10.1177/1087054714539998. Epub 2016 Jul 28.


Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate an Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program targeting difficulties and impairments associated with adult ADHD.

Method: Forty-five adults diagnosed with ADHD were randomized to either self-help (iCBT self-help format [iCBT-S]), self-help with weekly group sessions (iCBT group-therapy format [iCBT-G]), or a waiting-list control group. Treatment efficacy was measured at pre- and posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up.

Results: Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed a significant reduction in ADHD symptoms for the iCBT-S group in comparison with the waiting-list controls at posttreatment, with a between-group effect size of d = 1.07. The result was maintained at 6-month follow-up. No significant difference was found at posttreatment or 6-month follow-up between the iCBT-S and iCBT-G groups.

Conclusion: The findings show that a CBT treatment program administered through the Internet can be a promising treatment for adult ADHD. Limitations of the study design and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: ADHD; adult; cognitive behavioral therapy; randomized controlled trial.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ambulatory Care / methods
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anger
  • Attention
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / psychology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / therapy*
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Male
  • Mindfulness / methods
  • Problem Solving
  • Psychotherapy, Group / methods
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Waiting Lists