Hepatitis C virus infection increases risk of developing end-stage renal disease using competing risk analysis

PLoS One. 2014 Jun 27;9(6):e100790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100790. eCollection 2014.


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are closely linked and both increase patient mortality. The association of HCV and risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been analyzed with competing risk model.

Method: We enrolled a prospective cohort of 4,185 patients (mean age, 62 years; 41% female) registered in the CKD integrated care program at two affiliated hospitals of Kaohsiung Medical University in Taiwan between November 11, 2002 and May 31, 2009. With competing risk model, we analyzed the association of HCV infection, defined by seropositive of anti-HCV antibody, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined by seropositive of HBV surface antigen, with the risk of entering ESRD.

Results: The prevalence of HCV infection was 7.6% and it increased with the CKD stages (trend test, P<0.001), while the prevalence of HBV infection was 7.4% and no specific trend among CKD stages (tend test, P = 0.1). During the 9,101 person-year follow-up period, there were 446 death and 1,205 patients entering ESRD. After adjusting death as the competing risk, the estimated 5-year cumulative incidence rate of ESRD among patients with and without HCV infection were 52.6% and 38.4%, respectively (modified log-rank, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed that HCV infection, but not HBV infection, had higher risk of developing ESRD compared with cases without infection (HCV, HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.62; HBV, HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.89-1.35). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results.

Conclusions: With death-adjusted competing risk analysis, HCV infection is associated with an increased risk of developing ESRD in CKD cohort.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hepacivirus / immunology
  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / blood
  • Hepatitis B virus / metabolism
  • Hepatitis C / complications*
  • Hepatitis C / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis C Antibodies / blood
  • Hepatitis C Antibodies / immunology
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / mortality
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk
  • Survival Analysis


  • Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
  • Hepatitis C Antibodies

Grant support

The authors are grateful for the research support from the National Science Council of Taiwan, R.O.C. under grant number NSC: 99-2314-B-037-003-MY3, NSC 102-3114-Y-492-076-023, and from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital under grant number 1R09. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.