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A Snail Perspective on the Biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Origin and Intra-Island Dispersal of the Viviparous Freshwater Gastropod Tylomelania

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A Snail Perspective on the Biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia: Origin and Intra-Island Dispersal of the Viviparous Freshwater Gastropod Tylomelania

Thomas von Rintelen et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

The complex geological history of the Indonesian island Sulawesi has shaped the origin and subsequent diversification of its taxa. For the endemic freshwater snail Tylomelania a vicariant origin from the Australian margin has been hypothesized. Divergence time estimates from a mtDNA phylogeny based on a comprehensive island-wide sampling of Tylomelania fit regional tectonic constraints and support the 'out-of-Australia' vicariance hypothesis. The Banggai-Sula region of the Sula Spur, the Australian promontory colliding with West Sulawesi during the Miocene, is identified as a possible source area for the colonization of Sulawesi by the ancestor of Tylomelania. The molecular phylogeny also shows a rapid diversification of Tylomelania into eight major lineages with very little overlap in their distribution on the island. Haplotype networks provide further evidence for a strong spatial structure of genetic diversity in Tylomelania. Distribution boundaries of the major lineages do at best partially coincide with previously identified contact zones for other endemic species groups on Sulawesi. This pattern has likely been influenced by the poor dispersal capabilities and altitudinal distribution limits of this strict freshwater inhabitant. We suggest that late Miocene and Pliocene orogeny in large parts of Sulawesi has been the vicariant event driving primary diversification in Tylomelania.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Distribution and molecular phylogeny of Tylomelania.
A. Distribution area of Tylomelania (red) and its sister taxon Pseudopotamis (blue circle) on Sulawesi and the Torres Strait Islands, respectively. B. Map of Sulawesi with sample sites of Tylomelania. Black dot – sample sequenced for this study; white dot – museum sample. C. BI phylogram and shells of selected species of Tylomelania. Phylogeny based on 1,528 bp of mtDNA (COI and 16S). Numbers on branches show node support; BI posterior probability (top), ML (centre), and MP (bottom) bootstrap values. Colour code as in panel A.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Calibrated phylogeny of Tylomelania and the tectonic history of Sulawesi.
A. Bayesian (BEAST) chronogram of Tylomelania based on 660 bp of mtDNA (COI) using a substitution rate of 1.76%/My (see Material and methods). The major lineages of Tylomelania are colour-coded. The pink horizontal bars link the events associated with nodes 1 (TMRCA of Tylomelania and Pseudopotamis) and 2 (first speciation event within Tylomelania) with the geological timescale and paleogeography of Sulawesi (panel C). B. Map of Sulawesi with major tectonic subdivisions (compare panel C) and the distribution of the major lineages of Tylomelania (colour-coding of areas corresponds to major lineages in panel A). C. Schematic summary of the geographic connections and the timing of separation or collision of the different parts of Sulawesi (see map in panel B). Blue tinting indicates presumably submerged areas, see legend for details. Modified from . D,E. Paleogeographic reconstructions of the Asia-Australia collision zone 5 Mya and 20 Mya. Modified from .
Figure 3
Figure 3. Distribution of the major lineages and haplotype groups of Tylomelania on Sulawesi.
A. Sulawesi map with assignment of sampling sites (small red dots) to haplotype groups (pie charts, haplotype group specific colour code as in panel B). Haplotype group diversity for sites in close geographic vicinity has been subsumed within a single pie chart. Numbers within pie charts are sequenced individuals. Bluish areas indicate the position of contact zones for macaque species on Sulawesi (from [31]). Red frames show the position of the two contact zones of Tylomelania clades. B. BI phylogram based on tree shown in Figure 1, all clades with a BPP of >0.90 are shown as cartoons. Colours correspond to those used in Figure 2 and the circles with roman numbers indicate haplotype groups within each lineage (see Figure S1).

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Publication types

Grant support

This study was financed by German Research Council (DFG, www.dfg.de) grants GL 1738/1-1, 7-1, 7-2, -3, and RI 1738/4-1 to MG and TvR, respectively. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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