Null association between vitamin D and PSA levels among black men in a vitamin D supplementation trial

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Sep;23(9):1944-7. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0522. Epub 2014 Jun 28.


Background: Black men exhibit a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as well as a higher incidence of prostate cancer and higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than Whites. There are few data about the effect of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in healthy Black men.

Methods: During three winters from 2007 to 2010, 105 Black men (median age, 48.9 years) of Boston, MA were randomized into a four-arm, double-blind trial for 3 months of placebo, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 U of vitamin D3. At baseline and 3 months, free and total PSA was measured.

Results: With vitamin D supplementation, no significant differences in free and total PSA were observed; free PSA, -0.0004 ng/mL (P = 0.94) and total PSA, -0.004 ng/mL (P = 0.92) for each additional 1,000 U/d of vitamin D3.

Conclusion: Within an unselected population of healthy Black men without a cancer diagnosis, we found no effect of vitamin D supplementation on free or total PSA.

Impact: These findings support prior findings of no change in PSA with vitamin D supplementation and emphasize the need for new methods to assess the influence of vitamin D supplementation on prostate cancer prevention.

Trial registration: NCT00585637.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Black or African American
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Humans
  • Kallikreins / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism*
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / ethnology
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / metabolism


  • Vitamin D
  • KLK3 protein, human
  • Kallikreins
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen

Associated data