Aims: To estimate quantitatively the association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome by combining the relevant published articles using meta-analysis.
Methods: We reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE published up until August 2013 and obtained additional information through Google or a hand search of the references in relevant articles. A random-effects or fixed-effects model, as appropriate, was used to pool the effect sizes on metabolic syndrome comparing individuals with the highest dietary magnesium intake with those having the lowest intake. The dose-response relationship was assessed for every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome.
Result: Six cross-sectional studies, including a total of 24 473 individuals and 6311 cases of metabolic syndrome, were identified as eligible for the meta-analysis. A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17% (odds ratio 0.83, 95% CI 0. 77, 0.89).
Conclusion: Findings from the present meta-analysis suggest that dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Further studies, in particular well-designed longitudinal cohort studies and randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials, are warranted to provide solid evidence and to establish causal inference.
© 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.