The thrower's shoulder

Orthop Clin North Am. 2014 Jul;45(3):387-401. doi: 10.1016/j.ocl.2014.04.003.


Throwers, or athletes who engage in repetitive overhead motions, are a unique subset of athletes that experience distinct shoulder injuries. Athletes engaged in baseball comprise the majority of patients seeking orthopedic care for throwing related injuries. Injuries specific to throwers most commonly involve the labrum and the undersurface of the rotator cuff. In addition, tissue changes in both the anterior and posterior glenohumeral capsule are common with repetitive overhead motions. These capsular changes alter. This article will examine the pathomechanics of injuries to throwers, elaborate means of diagnoses of cuff and labral injury and discuss recent advances in both non-operative and operative interventions, including preventative principles.

Keywords: GIRD; Humeral retroversion; Labrum; Rotator cuff.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arm / physiopathology
  • Athletic Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Bone Retroversion / physiopathology
  • Contracture / physiopathology
  • Hip / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Joint Capsule / injuries
  • Rotation
  • Rotator Cuff Injuries
  • Shoulder Injuries*
  • Shoulder Joint / physiopathology*