Clinical trials in patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction

Heart Fail Clin. 2014 Jul;10(3):511-23. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2014.04.011.


There is no robust evidence that any treatment can modify the natural history of patients with heart failure and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF), although most agree that diuretics can control congestion and improve symptoms. HFpEF is often complicated by systemic and pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, obesity, chronic lung and kidney disease, lack of physical fitness, and old age that can complicate both diagnosis and management. Further trials should phenotype patients precisely and create better definitions of HFpEF based on biomarkers.

Keywords: Clinical trials; Comorbidity; HFpEF; NT-proBNP.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Digoxin / therapeutic use
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy*
  • Heart Failure / mortality*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Piperazines / therapeutic use
  • Prognosis
  • Purines / therapeutic use
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Reference Values
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sildenafil Citrate
  • Stroke Volume / physiology*
  • Sulfonamides / therapeutic use
  • Survival Analysis
  • Syndrome
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Function, Left / physiology


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Piperazines
  • Purines
  • Sulfonamides
  • Digoxin
  • Sildenafil Citrate