Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin-4 antibody levels in neuromyelitis optica attacks

Ann Neurol. 2014 Aug;76(2):305-9. doi: 10.1002/ana.24208. Epub 2014 Jul 9.


To elucidate immunopathogenetic roles of aquaporin-4 antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), we analyzed aquaporin-4 antibody titers, cellular and inflammatory markers in the CSF collected from 11 aquaporin-4 antibody seropositive patients. The CSF aquaporin-4 antibody levels during attacks (but not in sera) closely correlated with pleocytosis, inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 that can regulate antibody-producing plasmablasts, and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels in the CSF. The amount of aquaporin-4 antibodies present in the central nervous system may have therapeutic implications, as it is associated with astrocyte injury and inflammatory responses during NMOSD attacks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aquaporin 4 / immunology*
  • Autoantibodies / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Biomarkers / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuromyelitis Optica* / blood
  • Neuromyelitis Optica* / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Neuromyelitis Optica* / immunology
  • Young Adult


  • Aquaporin 4
  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers