Optimal management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: where are we now?

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2014 Aug;14(8):877-86. doi: 10.1586/14737140.2014.919861. Epub 2014 Jul 1.


Anal cancer is an uncommon gastrointestinal tract malignancy rising in incidence annually for the past 5 years. Though subdivided into perianal and anal canal cancers, squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) is the major variant. High risk HPV are associated with most SCCA. It is also evident that SCCA of the anal canal is highly prevalent in HIV+ patients. Over the past few decades, few studies have been conducted on anal cancers to describe the progress of basic and clinical research regarding SCCA of the anal canal. In this article, the discussion has been focused on the recent clinical developments and optimal recommendations for the management of SCCA of the anal canal, including anal cancer screening based on currently available data.

Keywords: HIV; HPV; HPV vaccine; anal canal; carcinoma; combined modality therapy; metastatic; screening.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anal Canal / pathology
  • Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Anus Neoplasms / pathology
  • Anus Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy*
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Mass Screening / methods*

Supplementary concepts

  • Anal Canal Carcinoma