Adipose tissue CIDEA is associated, independently of weight variation, to change in insulin resistance during a longitudinal weight control dietary program in obese individuals

PLoS One. 2014 Jul 1;9(7):e98707. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098707. eCollection 2014.

Abstract

Aim: Weight loss reduces risk factors associated with obesity. However, long-term metabolic improvement remains a challenge. We investigated quantitative gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obese individuals and its relationship with low calorie diet and long term weight maintenance induced changes in insulin resistance.

Research design: Three hundred eleven overweight and obese individuals followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-week low calorie diet followed by a 6-month ad libitum weight-maintenance diet. Individuals were clustered according to insulin resistance trajectories assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Adipose tissue mRNA levels of 267 genes selected for regulation according to obesity, metabolic status and response to dieting was assessed using high throughput RT-qPCR. A combination of discriminant analyses was used to identify genes with regulation according to insulin resistance trajectories. Partial correlation was used to control for change in body mass index.

Results: Three different HOMA-IR profile groups were determined. HOMA-IR improved during low calorie diet in the 3 groups. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, groups A and B had reduced HOMA-IR by 50%. In group C, HOMA-IR had returned to baseline values. Genes were differentially expressed in the adipose tissue of individuals according to groups but a single gene, CIDEA, was common to all phases of the dietary intervention. Changes in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels paralleled variations in insulin sensitivity independently of change in body mass index. Overall, CIDEA was up-regulated in adipose tissue of individuals with successful long term insulin resistance relapse and not in adipose tissue of unsuccessful individuals.

Conclusion: The concomitant change in adipose tissue CIDEA mRNA levels and insulin sensitivity suggests a beneficial role of adipose tissue CIDEA in long term glucose homeostasis, independently of weight variation.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / metabolism*
  • Adipose Tissue / pathology
  • Adult
  • Caloric Restriction*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Obesity / pathology

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00390637

Grant support

The study was supported by funding from the European Communities (EMIF-MET, FP7-115372, DiOGenes, FP6-513946, HEALTH-F2-2008-2011 00), Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale, Agence Nationale de la Recherche (LIPOB and OBELIP) and Région Midi-Pyrénées. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.