Choline used as the sole carbon or carbon and nitrogen source induces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa an active transport system. The induction of the choline uptake is repressed by succinate independently of the presence of ammonium ion in the culture medium. The repression mediated by succinate was insensitive to cyclic AMP. Substitution for dibutyryl-cyclic AMP was without effect. Choline metabolites that also support the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were poor inducer agents of the choline transport. Kinetic evidence and the employment of choline metabolites as effectors indicated that the choline uptake system of this bacterium is formed by at least two components: one of high affinity (Km = 3 microM) and another of low affinity (Km = 400 microM). Contrary to what occurs in the synaptosome system, the high affinity form for the choline uptake was not dependent on Na+ ions and is not inhibited by hemicholinium-3. Since Pseudomonas aeruginosa can utilize choline as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, the induction of the choline transport with two components in this bacterium may be related to its own strategy to survive and grow in an adverse environment.