Background: Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2013 updated the classification and risk stratification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to include both the level of renal function and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). The update subclassifies the previous category of moderate renal impairment. There is currently limited information on the prevalence of CKD based on this new classification in United States (US) adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to provide such estimates, for T2DM both overall and in those ≥ 65 years of age. We used the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2012 to identify participants with T2DM. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and UAE were calculated using laboratory results and data collected from the surveys, and categorized based on the KDIGO classification. Projections for the US T2DM population were based on NHANES sampling weights.
Results: A total of 2915 adults diagnosed with T2DM were identified from NHANES, with 1466 being age ≥ 65 years. Prevalence of CKD based on either eGFR or UAE was 43.5% in the T2DM population overall, and 61.0% in those age ≥ 65 years. The prevalence of mildly decreased renal function or worse (eGFR < 60/ml/min/1.73 m2) was 22.0% overall and 43.1% in those age ≥ 65 years. Prevalence of more severe renal impairment (eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2) was 9.0% overall and 18.6% in those age ≥ 65 years. The prevalence of elevated UAE (> 30 mg/g) was 32.2% overall and 39.1% in those age ≥ 65 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension, retinopathy, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure.
Conclusions: This study confirms the high prevalence of CKD in T2DM, impacting 43.5% of this population. Additionally, this study is among the first to report US prevalence estimates of CKD based on the new KDIGO CKD staging system.