Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens

Anim Sci J. 2015 Jan;86(1):105-10. doi: 10.1111/asj.12250. Epub 2014 Jul 2.


This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis; broiler; immune system; peel extract.

MeSH terms

  • Animal Feed*
  • Animals
  • Chickens / immunology*
  • Citrus sinensis / chemistry*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Erythrocytes / immunology
  • Immunity, Humoral / drug effects*
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Sheep
  • Stimulation, Chemical
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology


  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Plant Extracts
  • Viral Vaccines