This review will focus on the construction, refinement, and validation of chemokine receptor models for the purpose of structure-based virtual screening and ligand design. The review will present a comparative analysis of ligand binding pockets in chemokine receptors, including a review of the recently released CXCR4 X-ray structures, and their implication on chemokine receptor (homology) modeling. The recommended protein-ligand modeling procedure as well as the use of experimental anchors to steer the modeling procedure is discussed and an overview of several successful structure-based ligand discovery and design studies is provided. This review shows that receptor models, despite structural inaccuracies, can be efficiently used to find novel ligands for chemokine receptors.:
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