Outcome of early clinical trials of the combination of hydroxychloroquine with chemotherapy in cancer

Autophagy. 2014 Aug;10(8):1478-80. doi: 10.4161/auto.29428. Epub 2014 Jun 12.


The premise of inhibiting autophagy to overcome resistance to chemotherapy has been investigated in 5 clinical phase I trials combining hydroxychloroquine with vorinostat, temsirolimus, temozolomide, or bortezomib. These studies have provided a number of insights relating to the tolerability of the combination treatments. In addition, these studies should provide guidance in the planning and design of future trials to directly determine whether the strategy of autophagy inhibition could prove useful in the treatment of various malignancies.

Keywords: autophagy; bortezomib; hydroxychloroquine; temozolomide; temsirolimus; vorinostat.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Autophagy / drug effects
  • Clinical Trials as Topic*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Hydroxychloroquine / pharmacology
  • Hydroxychloroquine / therapeutic use*
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Hydroxychloroquine