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. 2014 Jul 3;9(7):e101472.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101472. eCollection 2014.

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

Free PMC article

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

Evelyn Shatil et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article


The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: Vladimír Bureš, Jaroslava Mikulecká and Francesco Bellotti have no competing financial interests. Evelyn Shatil is employed at CogniFit. She holds no stocks or shares, owns no patents or patent applications. This does not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.


Figure 1
Figure 1. Baseline and post-training mean differences on the Digit Span.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Baseline and post-training mean differences on the Trail Making Test.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Baseline and post-training mean differences on the TONI-3 and WHO-5.

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Grant support

This study was created with the support of the Vital Mind project - 7th EU Framework Programme project num. 215387. This manuscript creation has been partially supported by the internal Excellence Project ‘Agent-based models and Social Simulation’ funded by the University of Hradec Králové. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.