Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 bipolar and related disorders and hyperthymic personality in the community

J Affect Disord. 2014:167:198-205. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.06.004. Epub 2014 Jun 12.


Background: To 1) establish the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 bipolar and related disorders including the new algorithmically defined conditions grouped within Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorders (OSBARD) as well as hyperthymic personality in a randomly selected community sample, and 2) determine the clinical relevance of the OSBARD category in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, course, comorbidity and treatment patterns by comparing the subjects of this category to those with bipolar-I (BP-I), bipolar-II (BP-II), major depressive disorder (MDD), and those with no history of mood disorders.

Methods: The semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies was administered by masterslevel psychologists to a random sample of an urban area (n=3'719).

Results: The lifetime prevalence was 1.0% for BP-I, 0.8% for BP-II, 1.0% for OSBARD and 3% for hyperthymic personality. Subjects with OSBARD were more severely affected than subjects without a history of mood disorders regarding almost all clinical correlates. Compared to those with MDD, they also revealed an elevated risk of suicidal attempts, lower global functioning, more treatment seeking and more lifetime comorbidity including anxiety, substance use and impulse-control disorders. However, they did not differ from subjects with BP-II.

Limitations: Small sample sizes for bipolar and related disorders and potential inaccurate recall of symptoms.

Conclusions: The modifications of diagnostic criteria for manic/hypomanic episodes according to the DSM-5 only marginally affect the prevalence estimates for BP-I and BP-II. The new DSM-5 OSBARD category is associated with significant clinical burden, is hardly distinct from BP-II with respect to clinical correlates and deserves similar clinical attention.

Keywords: Bipolar disorders; Bipolar related disorders; Bipolar spectrum; Course; Hyperthymic personality; Prevalence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Anxiety Disorders / diagnosis
  • Anxiety Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis
  • Bipolar Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Comorbidity
  • Cyclothymic Disorder / diagnosis
  • Cyclothymic Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / diagnosis
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / epidemiology*
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders*
  • Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders / diagnosis
  • Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interview, Psychological
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Sampling Studies
  • Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis
  • Substance-Related Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Switzerland / epidemiology
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data