Background: The US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services assess patient experiences of care as part of the end-stage renal disease prospective payment system and Quality Incentive Program. This article describes the development and evaluation of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) In-Center Hemodialysis Survey.
Study design: We conducted formative research to generate survey questions and performed statistical analyses to evaluate the survey's measurement properties.
Setting & participants: Formative research included focus groups, cognitive interviews, and field testing the survey with dialysis patients.
Measurements & outcomes: We assessed internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha) and center-level reliability for 3 multi-item scales. We evaluated construct validity using correlations of the scales with global ratings of the kidney doctor, staff, and dialysis center.
Results: Response rate was 46% (1,454 completed surveys). Analyses support 3 multi-item scales: Nephrologists' Communication and Caring (7 items, alpha=0.89), Quality of Dialysis Center Care and Operations (22 items, alpha=0.93), and Providing Information to Patients (11 items, alpha=0.75). The communication scale was correlated the most strongly with the global rating of the "kidney doctor" (r=0.78). The Dialysis Center Care and Operations scale was correlated most strongly with global ratings of staff (r=0.75) and the center (r=0.69). Providing Information to Patients was correlated most strongly with the global rating of the staff (r=0.41).
Limitations: A relatively small number of patients completed the survey in Spanish.
Conclusions: This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the CAHPS In-Center Hemodialysis Survey for assessing patient experiences of care at dialysis facilities. The survey can be used to compare care provided at different facilities.
Keywords: CAHPS In-Center Hemodialysis (ICH) Survey; end-stage renal disease (ESRD); hemodialysis; patient experiences of care; patient satisfaction; patient-centered care; quality of care.
Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.