Spatio-temporal comparisons of imposex status and tissue organotin concentration in the whelk Reishia clavigera collected along the coasts of Dapeng Bay and Daya Bay, Shenzhen, China

Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Aug 15;85(1):254-60. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.06.017. Epub 2014 Jul 3.


Organotin compounds (OTs) have caused widespread adverse effects on marine organisms. As no local restrictions on OT-based antifouling paints have been implemented in China, high concentrations of OTs still occur in coastal environments. In this study, we measured the imposex status and tissue concentrations of OTs in the whelk Reishia clavigera collected along the coast of Dapeng Bay and Daya Bay of Shenzhen, China in 2013. Our results showed that all female whelks suffered from the onset of imposex. The highest concentration of total OTs was 27,756 μg kg(-1) dry weight in the samples collected from Shuitousha. Triphenyltin was the most predominant residue, accounting for more than 97.8% of total OTs across all sites. Compared with the results from previous studies, the marine environment of this region is still heavily contaminated with OTs. Therefore, a tightened control is necessary to regulate the use and release of OTs in China.

Keywords: Antifouling; Container terminal; Gastropod; Thais; Tissue concentration; Triphenyltin.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aquatic Organisms
  • Bays
  • China
  • Disorders of Sex Development / veterinary*
  • Ecosystem
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Female
  • Gastropoda / drug effects*
  • Geography
  • Male
  • Organotin Compounds / analysis*
  • Paint
  • Penis / anatomy & histology
  • Trialkyltin Compounds / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*


  • Organotin Compounds
  • Trialkyltin Compounds
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • tributyltin
  • triphenyltin