Our review and meta-analysis examined the association between a posteriori-derived dietary patterns (DPs) and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles published up to July 2012 and data were extracted by two independent reviewers. Overall, 19 cross-sectional, 12 prospective cohort, and two nested case-control studies were eligible for inclusion. Results from cross-sectional studies reported an inconsistent association between DPs and measures of insulin resistance and/or glucose abnormalities, or prevalence of type 2 diabetes. A meta-analysis was carried out on nine prospective cohort studies that had examined DPs derived by principle component/factor analysis and incidence of type 2 diabetes risk (totaling 309,430 participants and 16,644 incident cases). Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. Two broad DPs (Healthy/Prudent and Unhealthy/Western) were identified based on food factor loadings published in original studies. Pooled results indicated a 15% lower type 2 diabetes risk for those in the highest category of Healthy/Prudent pattern compared with those in the lowest category (95% CI 0.80 to 0.91; P<0.0001). Compared with the lowest category of Unhealthy/Western DP, those in the highest category had a 41% increased risk of type 2 diabetes (95% CI 1.32 to 1.52; P<0.0001). These results provide evidence that DPs are consistently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes even when other lifestyle factors are controlled for. Thus, greater adherence to a DP characterized by high intakes of fruit, vegetables, and complex carbohydrate and low intakes of refined carbohydrate, processed meat, and fried food may be one strategy that could have a positive influence on the global public health burden of type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes; Dietary patterns; Insulin resistance; Meta-analysis.
Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.