The discovery of Helicobacter pylori three decades ago is a modern medical success story. It markedly changed our understanding of the pathophysiology of gastroduodenal diseases and led to an improvement in the treatment of diseases related to H. pylori infection. Many of these diseases (such as ulcer disease and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) have become curable, and others (gastric cancer) might be preventable with the application of H. pylori eradication therapy. Since its discovery, H. pylori has also been identified as a trigger for some extragastric diseases. Promising results in this exciting field might have a clinical effect in the near future. This Timeline gives an overview of the success of clinical research on H. pylori to date and highlights some future trends in this area.