Objective: To report the full cohort of identifiable anomalies, regardless of known clinical significance, in a large-scale cohort of postmiscarriage products-of-conception samples analyzed using a high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based microarray platform. High-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis allows for the identification of visible and submicroscopic cytogenomic imbalances; the specific use of SNPs permits detection of maternal cell contamination, triploidy, and uniparental disomy.
Methods: Miscarriage specimens were sent to a single laboratory for cytogenomic analysis. Chromosomal microarray analysis was performed using a SNP-based genotyping microarray platform. Results were evaluated at the cytogenetic and microscopic (greater than 10 Mb) and submicroscopic (less than 10 Mb) levels. Maternal cell contamination was assessed using information derived from fetal and maternal SNPs.
Results: Results were obtained on 2,389 of 2,392 specimens (99.9%) that were less than 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal cell contamination was identified in 528 (22.0%) specimens. The remaining 1,861 specimens were considered to be of true fetal origin. Of these, 1,106 (59.4%) showed classical cytogenetic abnormalities: aneuploidy accounted for 945 (85.4%), triploidy for 114 (10.3%), and structural anomalies or tetraploidy for the remaining 47 (4.2%). Of the 755 (40.6%) cases considered normal at the cytogenetic level, SNP chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a clinically significant copy number change or whole-genome uniparental disomy in 12 (1.6%) and three (0.4%) cases, respectively.
Conclusion: Chromosomal microarray analysis of products-of-conception specimens yields a high diagnostic return. Using SNPs extends the scope of detectable genomic abnormalities and facilitates reporting "true" fetal results. This supports the use of SNP chromosomal microarray analysis for cytogenomic evaluation of miscarriage specimens when clinically indicated.
Level of evidence: III.