Aims/hypothesis: This study was performed to assess the effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on the metabolic profiles of vitamin D insufficient persons with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: In a parallel designed randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total of 118 non-smoker individuals with type 2 diabetes and insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D, aged >30 years, were recruited from the Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Centre. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups receiving: (1) 50,000 U/week vitamin D + calcium placebo; (2) 1,000 mg/day calcium + vitamin D placebo; (3) 50,000 U/week vitamin D + 1,000 mg/day calcium; or (4) vitamin D placebo + calcium placebo for 8 weeks. A study technician carried out the random allocations using a random numbers table. All investigators, participants and laboratory technicians were blinded to the random assignments. All participants provided 3 days of dietary records and 3 days of physical activity records throughout the intervention. Blood samples were taken to quantify glycaemic and lipid profiles at study baseline and after 8 weeks of intervention.
Results: 30 participants were randomised in each group. During the intervention, one participant from the calcium group and one from the vitamin D group were excluded because of personal problems. Calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation resulted in reduced serum insulin (changes from baseline: -14.8 ± 3.9 pmol/l, p = 0.01), HbA1c [-0.70 ± 0.19% (-8.0 ± 0.4 mmol/mol), p = 0.02], HOMA-IR (-0.46 ± 0.20, p = 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-10.36 ± 0.10 mmol/l, p = 0.04) and total/HDL-cholesterol levels (-0.91 ± 0.16, p = 0.03) compared with other groups. We found a significant increase in QUICKI (0.025 ± 0.01, p = 0.004), HOMA of beta cell function (HOMA-B; 11.8 ± 12.17, p = 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol (0.46 ± 0.05 mmol/l, p = 0.03) in the calcium-vitamin D group compared with others.
Conclusions/interpretation: Joint calcium and vitamin D supplementation might improve the glycaemic status and lipid profiles of vitamin D insufficient people with type 2 diabetes.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01662193 FUNDING: Clinical Research Council, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.