Participation in cancer clinical trials (CCTs) is a key measure for delivery of quality cancer care. Yet, adult cancer patient participation in CCTs remains at about 3%, and participation rates are even lower among ethnic and racial minorities and the medically underserved. Social justice demands better representation of all populations in CCTs to ensure equal access to clinical trials and to ensure greater generalizability of trial results. Using a conceptual framework, this paper outlines a set of guiding principles deemed essential for effective and ethical implementation of community-based education in CCTs. Also described are examples of interventions related to this framework that have been used to overcome key barriers to trial enrollment among underserved populations. Application of the key principles, combined with ongoing engagement of cancer care institutions, suggests promise in enhancing trial participation.