The recently identified cell surface immunoreceptor MILR1 (mast cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 1; synonyms, Allergin-1) has been shown to suppress immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, mast cell-dependent responses in both mice and humans. We performed a mutation search of MILR1 together with a genetic association study to determine whether polymorphisms in MILR1 are associated with atopy in human. Mutation screening of MILR1 was performed using DNA from 146 unrelated Japanese. Genotyping of the identified polymorphisms was done with 1505 individuals from the general Japanese adult population. Atopy, as defined by positive responses for specific IgEs against at least one of the 26 common allergens, was evaluated using MAST-26. Five polymorphisms (rs6504230, c.-170_-166delAGGAA, rs8071835, rs143526766 and rs12936887) and two rare missense variants (Val273Ala and Leu311Val) were identified by mutation screening. The C allele of rs6504230 had protective effects against atopy (P=0.002). A luciferase reporter assay using the promoter region of MILR1 revealed that the C allele of rs6504230 was associated with increased expression of MILR1, which was in accordance with the results of expression quantitative trait loci analysis using human leukocytes. Our data indicates that the rs6504230 polymorphism affects MILR1 expression levels in humans, leading to a susceptibility to producing specific IgE antibodies against common allergens.