Partly replacing meat protein with soy protein alters insulin resistance and blood lipids in postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity

J Nutr. 2014 Sep;144(9):1423-9. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.193706. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Abstract

Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the effect of soy consumption on insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, and other characteristics of MetS is not frequently studied in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of a 4-wk, strictly controlled, weight-maintaining, moderately high-protein diet rich in soy on insulin sensitivity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. We performed a randomized crossover trial of 2 4-wk diet periods in 15 postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity to test diets with 22 energy percent (En%) protein, 27 En% fat, and 50 En% carbohydrate. One diet contained protein of mixed origin (mainly meat, dairy, and bread), and the other diet partly replaced meat with soy meat analogues and soy nuts containing 30 g/d soy protein. For our primary outcome, a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) was performed at the end of both periods. Plasma total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein were assessed, and blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and intrahepatic lipid content were measured at the start and end of both periods. Compared with the mixed-protein diet, the soy-protein diet resulted in greater insulin sensitivity [FSIGT: insulin sensitivity, 34 ± 29 vs. 22 ± 17 (mU/L)(-1) · min(-1), P = 0.048; disposition index, 4974 ± 2543 vs. 2899 ± 1878, P = 0.038; n = 11]. Total cholesterol was 4% lower after the soy-protein diet than after the mixed-protein diet (4.9 ± 0.7 vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.001), and LDL cholesterol was 9% lower (2.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L, P = 0.004; n = 15). Thus, partly replacing meat with soy in a moderately high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. Therefore, partly replacing meat products with soy products could be important in preventing MetS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01694056.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cholesterol / blood*
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology
  • Dietary Proteins / therapeutic use*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Meat*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity, Abdominal / blood
  • Obesity, Abdominal / diet therapy*
  • Postmenopause
  • Soybean Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Soybean Proteins / pharmacology
  • Soybean Proteins / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Soybean Proteins
  • Cholesterol

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01694056