Novel prospects of statins as therapeutic agents in cancer

Pharmacol Res. 2014 Oct;88:84-98. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2014.06.013. Epub 2014 Jul 5.

Abstract

Statins are well known competitive inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase enzyme (HMG-CoA reductase), thus traditionally used as cholesterol-lowering agents. In recent years, more and more effects of statins have been revealed. Nowadays alterations of lipid metabolism have been increasingly recognized as a hallmark of cancer cells. Consequently, much attention has been directed toward the potential of statins as therapeutic agents in the oncological field. Accumulated in vitro and in vivo clinical evidence point out the role of statins in a variety of human malignancies, in regulating tumor cell growth and anti-tumor immune response. Herein, we summarize and discuss, in light of the most recent observations, the anti-tumor effects of statins, underpinning the detailed mode of action and looking for their true significance in cancer prevention and treatment, to determine if and in which case statin repositioning could be really justified for neoplastic diseases.

Keywords: Adjuvant therapy; Anti-tumor immunity; Cancer; Mevalonate pathway; Statins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Mevalonic Acid / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Mevalonic Acid / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Mevalonic Acid