Gender, race and cardiac rehabilitation in the United States: is there a difference in care?

Am J Med Sci. 2014 Aug;348(2):146-52. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000306.


Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death within the United States, involving both genders and among all races and ethnic populations. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to significantly improve morbidity and mortality, and these benefits extend to individuals of both genders and all ages with coronary heart disease. Despite this, referral and participation rates remain surprisingly low. Furthermore, women and minorities have even lower referral rates than do their male and white counterparts. Over the course of this article, we will review CR referral and participation among women, as well as racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We will also examine barriers to CR participation among these subgroups.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Disease / rehabilitation*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Population Groups*
  • Sex Factors*
  • United States