Prognostic value of 11C-choline PET/CT and CT for predicting survival of bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy

Urol Int. 2014;93(2):207-13. doi: 10.1159/000357686. Epub 2014 Jul 9.


Background: In patients with bladder cancer (BCa) preoperative staging with (11)C-choline positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) could be used to derive prognostic information and hence stratify patients preoperatively with respect to disease management.

Methods: From June 2004 to May 2007, 44 patients with localized BCa were staged with (11)C-choline PET/CT before radical cystectomy. The results of imaging were correlated to overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of cancer-specific death (CSD).

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in OS and CSD between the patient groups when stratified for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease or lymph node involvement defined by either (11)C-choline PET/CT (OS: p = 0.262, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60; p = 0.527, HR = 0.76; CSD: p = 0.144, HR = 2.25; p = 0.976, HR = 0.98) or CT (OS: p = 0.518, HR = 1.34; p = 0.228, HR = 1.67; CSD: p = 0.323, HR = 1.90; p = 0.136, HR = 2.38). The limitation of this study is the small number of included patients.

Conclusion: In our prospective trial neither CT nor (11)C-choline PET/CT were able to sufficiently predict OS or CSD in BCa patients treated with radical cystectomy albeit trends and moderately increased HRs could be demonstrated without significant differences between CT or (11)C-choline PET/CT. However, these trends might prove statistically significant in bigger patient cohorts. Therefore initial transsectional imaging might be of clinical relevance in respect to prognosis and could play a role in the counseling of BCa patients.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Carbon Radioisotopes*
  • Choline*
  • Cystectomy / adverse effects
  • Cystectomy / methods*
  • Cystectomy / mortality
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Multimodal Imaging
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Positron-Emission Tomography*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Prospective Studies
  • Radiopharmaceuticals*
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery*


  • Carbon Radioisotopes
  • Radiopharmaceuticals
  • Choline