Background: Computed tomography (CT) findings can be used to classify invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in 2 patterns: airway-invasive (AIR) or angioinvasive (ANG).
Methods: AIR-IPA was considered when the CT revealed peribronchial consolidation or a tree-in-bud pattern and ANG-IPA when a nodule, cavity, halo sign, infarct-shaped, or mass-like consolidation was found. We evaluated the correlation among IPA patterns on CT and outcomes in heart transplant (HT) recipients.
Results: The study included 27 HT recipients with a CT scan performed at the time of IPA diagnosis. The study interval was from 1988 to 2011. Ten AIR-IPA patients (37.1%) were compared with 17 ANG-IPA patients (62.9%). During the post-transplantation period before IPA developed, AIR patients required hemodialysis more frequently (40% vs 5.9%, p = 0.04). AIR patients also had more intercurrent bacterial pneumonia (23.5% vs 70%, p < 0.001), and IPA was diagnosed later after onset of symptoms (2.7 vs 8.5 d, p = 0.09). After diagnosis, AIR-IPA patients required more mechanical ventilation (23.5% vs 90%, p < 0.01) and had a higher related mortality rate (23.5% vs 70%, p = 0.04).
Conclusions: Our study shows that the AIR pattern represents 37% of IPA episodes in HT recipients and is associated with a more protracted clinical presentation, later diagnosis, and higher mortality rate.
Keywords: Aspergillus spp; airway-invasive pattern; angio-invasive pattern; heart transplant; invasive aspergillosis.
Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.