Over the last five decades more than 100 types of RNA modifications have been identified in organism of all kingdoms of life, yet their function and biological relevance remain largely elusive. The recent development of transcriptome-wide techniques to detect RNA modifications such as N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) and 5-methylcytidine (m(5)C) has not only created a new field of research 'the epitranscriptome' but also featured essential regulatory roles of RNA methylation in a wide range of fundamental cellular processes. Here, we discuss the current knowledge of m(6)A and m(5)C RNA methylation pathways and summarize how they impact normal tissues and contribute to human disease.
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