Periodontal disease and systemic diseases in an older population

Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014 Sep-Oct;59(2):474-9. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2014.05.011. Epub 2014 Jun 12.


Objective: To evaluate the relationship between older adults' medical and oral conditions and their self-reports of periodontal conditions with clinically obtained data.

Background: Concerns about oral health of elders and its association with systemic diseases have been gaining more attention.

Methods: A total of 201 older subjects were interviewed about their previous medical and dental histories and were asked to complete a health questionnaire. Each subject received full mouth exam, including counting number of natural teeth remaining, gingival (GI) and plaque index (PI), CPITN and denture status.

Results: Elders who completed health questionnaires had mean age of 62.5. Mean CPITN score was 1.62(± 1.12), PI was 1.57(± 1.48), and GI was 1.55(± 1.31). Women had higher prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis than men (p=0.008, p=0.0001, respectively). Subjects who reported bleeding upon brushing had higher PI and GI scores (p=0.03, p=0.05, respectively). Smokers were more likely to describe their periodontal tissues as unhealthy (72.3% vs. 27.7%, p=0.01), whereas self-reports of healthy vs. unhealthy gums did not differ between non-smokers.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that a number of systemic conditions are associated with indicators of periodontal disease, and self-reports of oral conditions are independent of systemic diseases.

Keywords: Older adults; Periodontitis; Self-reports; Smoking; Systemic diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Comorbidity
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Periodontal Diseases / diagnosis
  • Periodontal Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Periodontal Index
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Report
  • Surveys and Questionnaires