The aims of this study were to determine (i) whether adaptation under strong selection occurred through mutations in a narrow target of one or a few nucleotide sites or a broad target of numerous sites and (ii) whether the programs of adaptation previously observed from three experimental populations were unique or shared among populations that underwent parallel evolution. We used archived population samples from a previous study, representing 500 generations of experimental evolution in 12 populations under strong selection, 6 populations in a high-salt environment and 6 populations in a low-glucose environment. Each set of six populations included four with sexual reproduction and two with exclusively asexual reproduction. Populations were sampled as resequenced genomes of 115 individuals and as bulk samples from which frequencies of mutant alleles were estimated. In a high-salt environment, a broad target of 11 mutations within the proton exporter, PMA1, was observed among the six populations, in addition to expansions of the ENA gene cluster. This pattern was shared among populations that underwent parallel evolution. In a low-glucose environment, two programs of adaptation were observed. The originally observed pattern of mutation in MDS3/MKT1 in population M8 was a narrow target of a single nucleotide, unique to this population. Among the other five populations, the three mutations were shared in a broad target, sensing/signaling genes RAS1 and RAS2. RAS1/RAS2 mutations were not observed in the high-salt populations; PMA1 mutations were observed only in a high-salt environment.
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