Background: To develop a grading system for sunset glow fundus (SGF) based on the results of ultra-wide field retinal imaging and to investigate the factors related to the severity of SGF in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease.
Methods: Records of 55 eyes with VKH disease were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had undergone serial fundus photography, ultra-wide field retinal imaging and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. The morphologic characteristics of SGF and associated features related to the severity of the condition were evaluated.
Results: Sunset glow fundi were classified into 3 groups based on the extent and severity of depigmentary changes: early (n = 7), intermediate (n = 10) and advanced (n = 20). Grade 0 indicates the absence of sunset glow appearance. Eyes with a higher SGF grade were more likely to exhibit chronic recurrence (P < 0.001) and an anterior chamber reaction ≥ 2+ (P < 0.001), and were less likely to exhibit exudative retinal detachment (P < 0.001) at the initial presentation. Higher grades were more likely to exhibit cataracts (P < 0.001), glaucoma (P = 0.010), patchy chorioretinal atrophic lesions (P = 0.012), depigmented atrophic lesions (P < 0.001), an increased peripapillary atrophy/disc area ratio (P < 0.001), a decreased subfoveal choroidal thickness (P < 0.001), more frequent uveitis recurrences (P = 0.012) and a longer disease duration (P < 0.001). SGF progression was faster in eyes with a longer active inflammatory period.
Conclusions: We present a simple and logical grading system for SGF as determined by using ultra-wide field retinal imaging. This grading system offers a means of assessing the degree of inflammation and facilitates speculation about the duration of VKH disease.