Endothelial dysfunction resulting in disintegration of vascular structure and function is a key element in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many risk factors-traditional and non-traditional-are thought to have a role in the progression and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with CKD. However, many risk factors await definitive confirmation of their clinical relevance obtained from intervention trials. Moreover, the investigation of the relative contribution of these factors to the twin-risk problem of CVD and progression in patients with CKD is one of the most important future challenges for nephrologists.
Keywords: biomarkers; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; endothelium.