Diagnosis of ALG12-CDG by exome sequencing in a case of severe skeletal dysplasia

Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2014;1:213-219. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgmr.2014.04.004.

Abstract

Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation type Ig (ALG12-CDG) is part of a group of autosomal recessive conditions caused by deficiency of proteins involved in the assembly of dolichol-oligosaccharides used for protein N-glycosylation. In ALG12-CDG, the enzyme affected is encoded by the ALG12 gene. Affected individuals present clinically with neurodevelopmental delay, growth retardation, immune deficiency, male genital hypoplasia, and cardiomyopathy. A total of six individuals have been reported in the literature. Here, we present an infant with rhizomelic short stature, talipes equinovarus, platyspondyly, and joint dislocations. The infant had marked underossification of the pubic bones. Exome sequencing was performed and two deletions, each resulting in frameshifts, were found in ALG12. A review of the literature revealed two infants with ALG12-CDG and a severe skeletal dysplasia, including under-ossification of cervical vertebrae, pubic bones, and knees; in addition to talipes equinovarus and rhizomelic short stature. The phenotype of the individual we describe resembles pseudodiastrophic dysplasia and we discuss similarities and differences between ALG12-CDG and pseudodiastrophic dysplasia. The differential diagnosis in selected undiagnosed skeletal dysplasias should include CDGs.

Keywords: ALG12; ALG12-CDG; CDG-Ig; congenital disorder of glycosylation; severe skeletal dysplasia; whole exome sequencing.