Aims: We sought to describe the incidence, predictors, and impact of adverse neurological events (NE) in a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or medical therapy (MT).
Methods and results: 13,819 patients with moderate and high-risk NSTEACS were enrolled in the prospective ACUITY trial. Angiography was performed within 72 hours of presentation, after which 7,789 patients (56.4%) underwent PCI, 1,539 (11.1%) underwent CABG, and 4,491 (32.5%) received MT. The rate of NE (stroke or transient ischaemic attack) at 30 days and one year and its relationship to adverse ischaemic events, including death, were assessed. Thirty-day rates of NE were 1.1% with CABG, 0.3% with PCI, and 0.5% with MT (p<0.001). One-year rates of NE were 1.1% with CABG, 0.3% with PCI, and 0.6% with MT (p<0.001). Independent predictors of NE at 30 days and one year included age, renal insufficiency, baseline troponin elevation, and initial treatment with CABG. The occurrence of NE was a strong independent predictor of death at 30 days and one year (HR 4.07, 95% CI [1.49, 11.11], p=0.006, and HR 4.25, 95% CI [2.37, 7.62], p<0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: In the large-scale ACUITY trial, CABG was associated with a higher risk of NE at 30 days and one year compared to PCI and MT. The occurrence of NE in patients with NSTEACS was strongly associated with increased early and late mortality. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier NCT00093158.