Front-line transplantation program with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone combination as induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome

J Clin Oncol. 2014 Sep 1;32(25):2712-7. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2013.54.8164. Epub 2014 Jul 14.


Purpose: The three-drug combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD) has shown significant efficacy in multiple myeloma (MM). The Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) decided to evaluate RVD induction and consolidation therapies in a sequential intensive strategy for previously untreated transplantation-eligible patients with MM.

Patients and methods: In this phase II study, 31 symptomatic patients age < 65 years were enrolled to receive three RVD induction cycles followed by cyclophosphamide harvest and transplantation. Patients subsequently received two RVD consolidation cycles and 1-year lenalidomide maintenance.

Results: Very good partial response rate or better at the completion of induction, transplantation, and consolidation therapy was 58%, 70%, and 87%, respectively. Maintenance upgraded responses in 27% of patients. Overall, 58% of patients achieved complete response, and 68% were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative by flow cytometry. The most common toxicities with RVD were neurologic and hematologic, including grade 1 to 2 sensory neuropathy (55%), grade 3 to 4 neutropenia (35%), and thrombocytopenia (13%). Two basal cell carcinomas in the same patient and one case of breast cancer were observed. There was no treatment-related mortality. With a median follow-up of 39 months, estimated 3-year progression-free and overall survival were 77% and 100%, respectively. None of the patients who achieved MRD negativity relapsed.

Conclusion: The transplantation program with RVD induction and consolidation followed by lenalidomide maintenance produced high-quality responses and showed favorable tolerability in patients with newly diagnosed MM. Overall, 68% of patients achieved MRD negativity; none of these patients relapsed. This program is being evaluated in the ongoing IFM/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 2009 phase III study.

Trial registration: NCT01206205.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Boronic Acids / administration & dosage
  • Bortezomib
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Consolidation Chemotherapy
  • Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage
  • Dexamethasone / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • France
  • Humans
  • Lenalidomide
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • Multiple Myeloma / therapy*
  • Pyrazines / administration & dosage
  • Remission Induction
  • Stem Cell Transplantation / methods*
  • Thalidomide / administration & dosage
  • Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives
  • Transplantation, Autologous


  • Boronic Acids
  • Pyrazines
  • Thalidomide
  • Bortezomib
  • Dexamethasone
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Lenalidomide

Associated data