Candida spp. are the most common fungal pathogens isolated in immunocompromised hosts, particularly cancer patients. Numerous clinical manifestations of candidiasis have been recognized, including localized infection such as oropharyngeal candidiasis or focal hepatic candidiasis, and disseminated infection resulting from hematogenous spread, with or without documented fungemia. Granulocytopenic patients are particularly at risk. Candida albicans is isolated in approximately 40% of cases of fungemia, other Candida spp. now also commonly being isolated. The rate of morbidity and mortality secondary to candidiasis is still significant despite numerous attempts to develop better diagnostic techniques, and more effective means of chemoprophylaxis and therapy. Currently, new antifungal agents and galenic preparations of amphotericin B are being evaluated with the aim of improving the prognosis of candidiasis in immunocompromised hosts.