Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis can be defined as a group of syndromes that have as a common feature infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes with Candida albicans. A variety of disorders including endocrine dysfunctions, alopecia, vitiligo, malabsorption syndromes, neoplasms and other infections may also occur in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but these vary considerably from patient to patient. In most patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, there are abnormalities of cell-mediated immunity. These may be limited to antigens of Candida albicans, but in some patients they are more extensive and involve the T-lymphocyte-mediated responses to all antigens. These immunologic defects are the factors that predispose patients to infections with opportunistic organisms such as Candida spp. Fungal infections in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis usually respond to treatment with conventional antifungal agents, but often relapse shortly after treatment is stopped unless the defects in the cell-mediated immune system have been corrected.