Building strengths with the Six Es of medication management

Acad Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;39(2):191-5. doi: 10.1007/s40596-014-0164-1. Epub 2014 Jul 16.


The authors provide a template of focused skills drawn from various psychotherapy modalities for integration into follow-up psychopharmacology appointments. Titled the Six E model, this approach includes strategies to elicit an agenda, externalize the presenting problem, seek exceptions, engage empathetically, utilize enactments, and offer education. The template was trialed in a child and adolescent outpatient residency clinic under the guidance of two attendings. Qualitative feedback was solicited from fellows following utilization of the template. The Six E model was felt to improve structure and subjective satisfaction of patient, family, and provider participating in the brief appointments.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Ambulatory Care Facilities
  • Child
  • Clinical Competence
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Humans
  • Internship and Residency / methods*
  • Medication Therapy Management / education*
  • Mental Disorders* / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders* / therapy
  • Models, Educational
  • Professional-Family Relations
  • Psychological Techniques / education*
  • Psychotherapeutic Processes
  • Psychotherapy / education*
  • Psychotherapy / methods
  • Psychotropic Drugs / therapeutic use*


  • Psychotropic Drugs