Convergence Accommodation to Convergence CA/C Ratio: Convergence Versus Divergence

Strabismus. 2014 Sep;22(3):120-4. doi: 10.3109/09273972.2014.937445. Epub 2014 Jul 16.


Aim: To determine whether the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio during divergence with base-in (BI) prisms is of a similar or different magnitude to that measured during convergence with base-out (BO) prisms.

Methods: Eighteen participants with normal binocular single vision were recruited. The participants viewed a pseudo-Gaussian target, which consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) behind a diffusing screen at 40 cm. After 5 minutes of dark adaptation, the refractive status of the eye was measured without any prism using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The participant held the selected prism (5Δ or 10Δ BO or BI, counterbalanced) in front of their right eye and obtained a single, fused image of the target while refractive measures were taken with each. A 30-second rest period was given between measurements. The mean age of the participants was 20.6±3.22 years.

Results: The mean CA/C ratios for the 5Δ BO, 10Δ BO, 5Δ BI, and 10Δ BI were 0.108 (±0.074) D/Δ, 0.110 (±0.056) D/Δ, 0.100 (±0.090) D/Δ, and 0.089 (±0.055) D/Δ, respectively. A 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA found that the CA/C ratio did not significantly change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence (p=0.649).

Conclusions: Change in accommodation induced by manipulating vergence is similar whether convergence or divergence are induced. The CA/C ratio did not show any change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence.

Keywords: Binocular single vision; convergence accommodation/convergence ratio; divergence; open loop accommodation.

MeSH terms

  • Accommodation, Ocular / physiology*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Convergence, Ocular / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ocular Motility Disorders / physiopathology*
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology*
  • Young Adult