Mitochondrial disease resulting in reduced bioenergetic output can be due to mutations in either nuclear DNA-encoded or mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene products. We summarize some of the underlying principles of mitochondrial genetics that impact the diagnosis and pathogenesis of mitochondrial disorders. In addition, we present a brief overview of a new frontier in the field, namely, mitochondrial "dynamics," which controls organellar fusion, fission, trafficking, and positioning, and exerts mitochondrial "quality control" by maintaining organellar integrity and viability. Analysis of mutations in gene products associated with this latter area has opened up new vistas in the study of disorders associated with compromised energy production.
Keywords: mitodynamics; mtDNA; oxidative phosphorylation; respiratory chain.
© The Author(s) 2014.